Chapter 3 –
The birth of galaxies and
If and when the Big
Bang took place, the next thing to explain is how the galaxies and stars came
Usually, it has been thought that after the explosion (in other words
the Big Bang), hydrogen gas, which was created in this explosion spread
into the space. Then the same gas that had spread into the space because of the
explosion suddenly started to condense into galaxies and stars – although in a
slow process. It was possible because of small condensations that are believed
to have evenly existed after the Big Bang. It has been estimated that this
process of condensation of gas and dust took place over millions of years,
until the current kinds of galaxies and stars were born.
IS THE THEORY
When thinking about the birth of galaxies and stars, we may get an
impression from some publications that this issue has been solved, in the same
way as when reading about the Big Bang. It has been implied that it is a proven
fact that we should not doubt, only believe. Many people really think that the
celestial bodies came into being in the above-mentioned way.
But is the theory of the birth
of galaxies and stars satisfactory? Is it really a proven fact?
The best people to answer these
questions are scientist themselves: since they have examined the structure and
motions of the universe, they have comments on this topic. Their comments
indicate that the birth of these celestial bodies is still a mystery. The birth
of galaxies is deemed especially problematic. There is not any good proof:
I do not want to claim that
we really understand the process that created the galaxies. The theory on the
birth of the galaxies is one of the major unsolved problems in astrophysics and
we still seem to be far from the actual solution even today. (Steven
Weinberg, Kolme ensimmäistä minuuttia / The First Three Minutes, p. 88)
It is almost certainly true
that this is exactly how stars are created from the sparse condensations of gas
between the stars. We can hope that the same would take place in the whole
universe and thus, the formation of galaxies would begin. However, there is a
huge problem here – this does not take place. (…) We need better evidence based
on observations regarding how galaxies and large structures of the universe
were born. At this point, it is not yet possible to make such observations
regarding ordinary galaxies. (Malcolm S. Longair, Räjähtävä maailmankaikkeus
/ The Origins of Our Universe, p. 99,109)
Properties of gas. When studying the problems with how the galaxies and
stars came into being, the first problem is that if gas has spread into the
space as a consequence of the Big Bang, it is unlikely that it would suddenly
have started to condense into galaxies and stars: through physics, we know that
gas has the characteristic of always filling up any given space, meaning that
it would have continued to spread further into the outer space. It would have
made its way deeper and deeper into the space, and no orb could have been
formed. This would have been impossible, and all the material should have been
evenly spread into the space instead. It is one of those problems that prove
against the theory.
researchers have tried to solve this problem by proposing that material
condensations and disturbances have taken place at some point after the Big
Bang. However, there is one major problem with this idea: nobody has been able
to properly explain how the material condensations were formed.
A major problem, however, is
how did everything come into being? How did the gas from which galaxies were
born initially accumulate to start the birth process of stars and the large
cosmic cycle? (…) Therefore, we must find physical mechanisms that bring about
condensations within the homogenous material of the universe. This seems quite
easy but as a matter of fact leads to problems of a very profound nature. (Malcolm
S. Longair, Räjähtävä maailmankaikkeus / The Origins of Our Universe, p.
Slim evidence of the birth of galaxies and stars. As regards the
birth of galaxies and stars, it has been implied that only enough gas in one
place is needed for the galaxies and stars to come into being by themselves. It
has also been suggested that in some fog clouds, such as in the
constellation of Orion, stars are born all the time.
However, as an answer to the
above-mentioned claim one can state that, generally speaking, we cannot be sure
whether some fog clouds are accumulating or dispersing. A person's lifetime is
usually not long enough to observe these issues. Therefore, it is possible that
when we see a new star, it may simply be that the said star has been out of
sight behind fog clouds all the time, and is now visible because of the
revolving motion of the orbs or because the fog has settled and exposed it.
Therefore, it is not necessarily a question of a new star, but the star may
merely be "coming into view."
On the other hand, if the birth
of galaxies and stars is so simple, where is the evidence? Since it has been
estimated that there are a hundred billion galaxies in the sky, and a hundred
billion stars in each, and if we divide this by 10 billion (the estimated
age of the universe is 10–15 billion years), it would mean that 10 new
galaxies and 1,000 billion new stars would have to be born every year! This
huge amount of new stars and galaxies should be detectable somehow, but why can
we not detect it?
Detection should not even be difficult, because
scientists believe that they can only see the past of the outer space. Thus, we
would only need to look at different distances between one light year and 10–15
billion light years – so there would be many alternatives – and we would surely
see orbs forming. Why can we not detect this?
The birth of revolving and rotary movements is also a mystery. If in the
beginning there was only centrifugal motion caused by the Big Bang, how could
this motion suddenly change into the revolving and rotary movements that can be
observed everywhere in space? What brought about these new directions of
movement, since no revolving or rotary movement can start unless there is
another force driving it?
Assuming that the Big Bang
really happened, it would have caused motion only into one direction, movement
away from the place where the explosion occurred. No revolving and rotary
movement could have been created; instead, everything would have moved directly
away from the starting point. A good question is, therefore, how these motions came
into existence, because they could not have started by themselves; this goes
against all the laws of physics. Why are these movements found and observed
everywhere in space? These questions point to the shaky ground upon which the
theory of the birth of the universe is built.