CHAPTER 4 –
The birth of the solar
system and Earth
As regards the birth of the solar system and the Earth, the most common
theory is that in the beginning, there was only one rotating cloud of gas and
dust from which the Sun and planets gradually began to form.
As this cloud rotated at a great velocity, only its central
part stayed in place, and from it the Sun was formed; through collisions and
mergers, the separate parts began to form into larger pieces until, finally,
they became planets. It is believed that the whole solar system and the Earth
came into existence from this one gas-dust cloud.
IS THE THEORY SATISFACTORY?
When we start to study the possibility that the solar system and the
Earth came into being in the way described above, we must note that there are
many problems with the theory. In fact, the problems are so huge that according
to some researchers, the whole solar system should not even exist. This suggests
that the theory of their birth cannot rest on a firm foundation:
Even nowadays, when
astrophysics has progressed enormously, many theories concerning the origin of
the solar system are unsatisfactory. Scientists still disagree about the
details. There is no commonly accepted theory in sight. (Jim Brooks, Näin
alkoi elämä, p. 57 / Origins of Life)
All presented hypotheses
about the origin of the solar system have serious inconsistencies. The
conclusion, at the moment, seems to be that the solar system cannot exist. (H.
Jeffreys, The Earth: Its Origin, History and Physical Constitution, 6th
edition, Cambridge University Press, 1976, p. 387)
Rotation speed. One problem concerns the speed of rotation. If the Sun and the planets
actually came into being in the above-mentioned manner, the rotation speed of
the original gas cloud should have been a lot greater than the Sun's current
rotation speed. As the rotation speed now is approximately 2 km/s, the original
rotation speed should have been about 1,000 km/s. Why is the speed nowadays so
low, only 1/500 of the supposed original value? What has caused the speed to
diminish so enormously? Jim Brooks has explained this problem in the following
The largest difficulty with
this theory has to do with the impulse moment of the planets and the Sun. It
seems that the primeval nebula has not been able to rotate quickly enough for
the rings to come loose. According to mathematical laws, the total impulse
moment of the solar system has remained the same in all of its development
stages. Should the known total impulse moment fall completely to the Sun, the
Sun would rotate about fifty times faster around its axis than at present, in
other words, one circuit in half a day. As a consequence, the centrifugal force
at the Sun's equator would increase. This would reduce the Sun's force of
gravity only by 5%, and so the rings could not come loose. So, our calculations
imply that the centrifugal force could not have been able to hurl the planets
from the Sun into the outer space. (Jim Brooks, Näin alkoi elämä /
Origins of Life, p. 53)
Another problem with the rotation speed is that if the rotation thrust
the planets away from the Sun, why does the Sun revolve slower than the planets
(for example, the Earth revolves around its axis over 25 times faster than
the Sun)? Why does the Sun revolve slower than the planets, even though it
should be revolving much faster?
Spinning-top tests indicate that small objects that are
thrust away lose their velocity much faster than the spinning-top itself. In
other words, the spinning-top that is still rotating retains a greater velocity
than the objects that have been thrust away. Why is it that the rotation speeds
between the Sun and the planets are quite the opposite to what we should
expect? What has slowed the Sun's rotation speed so considerably compared to
Distances. The second problem is the distance of planets from
the Sun. Since the diameter of the Sun is now about 1.4 million kilometers and
the initial cloud was only 2–3 times larger, we can pose the question of how,
when studying these figures, can the planets be so far away from the Sun? The
Earth is about 150 million kilometers away from the Sun, and Pluto almost forty
times further away or a distance of about 5,900 million kilometers, which is
over 4,000 times the Sun's diameter. These figures are huge. How could these
objects have been thrown so far away from the vicinity of the Sun's gravity if
in the beginning they really were knit so tightly together? What threw them so
far, when the Sun’s own rotation speed is now only 2 km/s?
Composition and atmospheres of planets. The greatest problem with
the birth of the solar system is connected with the different composition of
the Sun, planets and moons. If they really had been created from the same gas
cloud, they should also have similar compositions, which is not the case. The
following observations reflect some of the differences between them. They suggest
the size and severity of problems that arise if we stick with the current
- 99 per cent of the Sun consists of light elements, i.e., hydrogen and
helium, but the Earth has only about one percent of these elements, and it is
composed of 99 percent heavy elements. The compositions of the other inner
planets are also completely different from that of the Sun.
- There are such huge differences in composition of the Earth and its
moon and the other inner planets that it is difficult to think that their
origin could be the same and they could have been born from the same initial
- There are enormous differences between the Earth and the large outer
planets and their moons. The composition of the Earth is totally different than
that of these outer planets, which are composed of light elements.
- There is plenty of water on Earth, but the other planets are almost
completely devoid of water.
- The atmospheres notably differ from each another. There are at least
the following differences:
- Earth: 78% nitrogen,
approximately 21% oxygen plus argon and other gases.
- Venus: 97% carbon dioxide,
2% nitrogen and less than 1% water vapor
- Mars: 95% carbon dioxide,
the rest nitrogen and argon
- Jupiter: Approximately 82%
hydrogen and 17% helium
Movements. If we propose that the planets and moons have the
same origin, then their movements should also be similar. All of them should
rotate approximately to the same direction, since they have all come into
existence from the same rotation.
However, this is not the case. As one studies the movements
of these celestial bodies, one finds that many of them are rotating in exactly
the opposite way as one could expect. These differences would certainly not be
possible if they really had the same origin. Here are some differences:
- Venus rotates around its
axis to the opposite direction than the other planets.
- Four of Jupiter's moons,
one of Uranus' moons, and Neptune's second moon or the large Triton revolve
around their mother planet to the opposite direction than the other moons.
- The planet Uranus is also
an exception; its axis is almost on track level, while the axes of the other
planets are nearly perpendicular to their track level.