Mediums, channeling, ghost phenomena, automatic writing. Read why the forces behind these phenomena are not good, but that it is a case of deception
In the article What are UFOs we considered the connection between UFOs and humanoids. We looked at how some people believe that they have seen these spacecraft, and that they have communicated with their inhabitants. Some people believe that they have received special messages from these humanoids to give to people – messages that are, generally, quite conventional.
Spiritualism and connection to powers beyond the border are similar activities. Spiritualists believed that there are other things besides mere air around and near us. These are spirits with whom people can associated in order to receive or deliver messages.
Many people like to think that they have been in contact with their relatives and received messages from them. Some believe that they have contacted well-known people such as Napoleon, Picasso, Carl Jung, pharaohs, kings, or even people who are mentioned in the New Testament. The best example may be the famous medium Arthur Ford, who claimed to have communicated with 8,000 deceased people.
We may well ask if it is possible that here, like in UFO phenomena, it is a question of deceit. Many people who deal with these things do not take this into consideration. This is a big mistake.
We are going to look at this matter closely, from the point of view that there is a spiritual world whose residents wish to lead people away from God. We will look at this matter in light of the following aspects:
- There is a spiritual world
- Why are mediums needed?
- Practical observations
- What does the Bible teach about the whereabouts of the dead?
- "In connection only with good spirits".
- Where do the ghost phenomena come from?
There is a spiritual world. If we look at the reasons why we should suspect that we are being deceived by spiritualism, as has been established with UFOs, the first reason is that the Bible often refers to the evil spiritual world. Jesus, His Apostles, and several other writers of Scriptures have referred to this. The following passages are just a few of their references:
- (Eph 2:1-2) And you has he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;
2 Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now works in the children of disobedience:
- (Eph 6:12) For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
- (John 14:30) Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world comes, and has nothing in me.
- (1 Peter 5:8-9) Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walks about, seeking whom he may devour:
9 Whom resist steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brothers that are in the world.
- (Matt 12:43-45) When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walks through dry places, seeking rest, and finds none.
44 Then he said, I will return into my house from where I came out; and when he is come, he finds it empty, swept, and garnished.
45 Then goes he, and takes with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also to this wicked generation.
- (Acts 5:16) There came also a multitude out of the cities round about to Jerusalem, bringing sick folks, and them which were vexed with unclean spirits: and they were healed every one.
- (Acts 8:7) For unclean spirits, crying with loud voice, came out of many that were possessed with them: and many taken with palsies, and that were lame, were healed.
As far as this possibility (that we would personally be deceived by the devil) is concerned, most people flatly deny this in their own life. They do not in any way regard it possible that they could be deceived in any area of their lives.
However, it is good to consider the words of Jesus concerning the devil. He said that the devil is a liar and the father of all lies who can deceive us in all areas. His greatest power is deceit, and he wants to mislead people and destroy their lives. If you reject this possibility, you are being unwise:
- (2 Cor 11:14) And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.
- (2 Cor 4:3-4) But if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost:
4 In whom the god of this world has blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine to them.
- (John 8:44) You are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father you will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and stayed not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
- (John 10:10) The thief comes not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly.
Why are mediums needed? One question we might ask ourselves is why a medium is needed to convey messages. Why do the supposed dead relatives need to deliver messages through a mediator instead of dealing directly with their loved ones?
Ask yourself why a wife, father, mother, child, or some other close relative wishing to contact us would use a mediator instead of speaking to us directly. Introducing a mediator would be unlikely because this did not take place in real life when these people were still alive. Therefore, the presence of mediators seems to give reason to doubt any real connection with the loved ones.
The second point is that we can study the lives of these mediums, their backgrounds, and how they have become mediums. Most of them drifted into being mediums in a similar way: they practiced some form of Oriental meditation. (A ouija board is very often an introduction to the world of mediums.) They have perhaps practiced it for many years or for a shorter period of time but the result is the same: at some point they have gotten under the power of the spirits that have started to speak through them. Kenneth R. Wade provides an example in his book Uuden aikakauden salaisuudet: New age (p. 137). He states that almost all channels and mediums he knows began their activity through some form of Oriental meditation:
Almost every one of channels and mediums whom I have examined had their initial connection with the guiding spirit when they practiced some form of Oriental meditation. The shamans also use some spell or mantra in order to get into trances, whereby they get connected to the spirit world.
What these mediums do not, however, take into consideration is that they have become machines that evil spirits can exploit and thorough which they can act. The following statement by Raphael Gasson refers to this. His statement is important because he himself was a former medium who announced to everyone the "good news" of "there being no death":
Whoever wants to be a medium must learn to relax his body and concentrate his thoughts to a center until he will achieve passivity, a condition like self hypnosis in which he no longer has control of his own thoughts. The person will become like a machine, through whom the evil spirits can act and make use of his passive condition. (1)
Practical observations. We also are led to see the deceitfulness in spiritualism because Satan with his angels can easily masquerade as angels of light (2 Cor 11:14), in other words as our next-of-kin. It is easy for Satan to do because he himself was the angel of light before his fall (Eze 28:12-19).
The next description found in UFOs: Satanic Terror by Basil Tyson is a good example of this. A demon, a fallen spirit, appeared as the mother of the author even though she was still alive. However, it had to leave when confronted with the name of Jesus Christ:
As I have already said, during my whole lifetime I have been aware of the reality of devilish interest directed at me. As a young man, I was away from home for several days. One night I had an awful dream. I could clearly see the door of the room in which I slept and I was sure that an awful creature would come through that door. Surrounded by fear, however still asleep, I saw how the door slowly opened and the figure of my mother was standing at the doorway. Still in my mind I see her as she was then, perfect in every detail, like my mother. She was wearing the same brown dress in which I had seen her when I left my home a few days earlier.
What shocked me was that I knew that it was not my mother. I was completely conscious that she was not there because she was at home, 24 kilometers away. In my dream she walked across the floor to my bedside, bowed over me and woke me with a kiss. Immediately, I woke up to the unpleasant presence of a demon. It had masked itself as my mother and now showed itself as it was. I was already a Christian then and I commanded this creature to leave in the name of Jesus Christ, and it did not stay for long!
Since then, I have been especially conscious of how easily the evil spirits can pretend to be our beloved. They can; and they will even go farther than that because they pretend to be others as well as those who are close to us.
In the example above, the mother of the author was still alive when a similar form appeared. There can also be examples found in which a person has spoken through a medium and this person was presumed to be dead but was later found to be alive and leading quite a normal life elsewhere. The next example describes such a case.
The important point here is that even though the information in the session seemed to be true, there was, in fact, no connection with the person:
During the Second World War a Scottish woman had been informed that her husband "had been lost in a battle". She waited and prayed for her husband to return but it seemed to be that the man had died. Believers who meant well urged her to go to a spiritualistic session and try to get connected with her husband.
The woman went and to her surprise, a creature who greatly resembled her husband appeared. They spoke together and the voice of the creature was as happy as her husband's voice had always been. It made her shiver when they spoke about many personal issues. Imagine her surprise and shock when a few months later her husband, without any warning, arrived home as healthy and vigorous as he had ever been. He had not even been wounded. (2)
Edmond Gruss presents another example in his book about the Ouija board. In this book, there is a confession of a spirit that should be taken with reservation, but apparently the spirits can read our memory as soon as we make room for them:
A man called J. Raupert tells us, “Some years ago, I had an experience of this. The spirit claimed for many months that he was my friend who was already dead. He had me convinced that he was my friend. However, he was exposed because of conflicting information and deceit. When he, in the name of God, was urged to disclose the real source of his information, he explained that he had obtained all his information from my foolish ‘memory compartments' and that he was able to read the contents of my passive memory as easily as I read a book or a newspaper. “(3)
What does the Bible say about the whereabouts of the deceased? If you have dealt with spiritualism, you may be convinced that you have been in contact with the spirits of the dead. You may think that they live quite near to us in the atmosphere and that we can, through mediums or even ourselves, be in contact with them. Perhaps you think that you have received messages from your dead relatives.
But is this possible? Is it possible for the dead to appear and speak to us? We will look at this in the following lines mainly in the light of examples from the Bible – examples that everyone should study. Important in the first couple of examples is that those were said by Jesus when He was here on Earth. Certainly, He is a better expert than anyone else.
Lazarus and the rich man. If we are looking for the best descriptions of the invisible world, one of them is certainly the account, which Jesus told about the rich man and Lazarus. From this can be seen that the life of the dead really continues in the other world. However, the teaching of this story is that the spirits of the dead cannot leave their whereabouts as has been claimed. A great chasm that was between the rich man and Lazarus prevented it:
- (Luke 16:19-26) There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:
20 And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,
21 And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man’s table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.
22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;
23 And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and sees Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
24 And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.
25 But Abraham said, Son, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and you are tormented.
26 And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from there.
Therefore, the spirit of the rich man did not get across to the saved ones (the verses above) and neither him nor Lazarus were able to come back to the Earth, as the next verses show. The people had been given the written word, Moses, and the Prophets. If they did not hear and believe that testimony, neither would they be persuaded by one who rose from the dead:
- (Luke 16:27-31) Then he said, I pray you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father’s house:
28 For I have five brothers; that he may testify to them, lest they also come into this place of torment.
29 Abraham said to him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.
30 And he said, No, father Abraham: but if one went to them from the dead, they will repent.
31 And he said to him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
The thief on the cross. The second good example is the thief on the cross. He did not stay on Earth; he went to Paradise on the same day. Jesus gave him this promise:
- (Luke 23:43) And Jesus said to him, Truly I say to you, To day shall you be with me in paradise.
Paul. Another example is found in the words of Paul. He did not think that he would remain wandering somewhere in the atmosphere; he believed that he would go directly to God and to Heaven. He thought that as long as he was still in his body he was away from Heaven, but immediately after his death he would go "home" to the Lord in Heaven:
- (2 Cor 5:6-8) Therefore we are always confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord:
7 (For we walk by faith, not by sight:)
8 We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.
- (Phil 1:23-24) For I am in a strait between two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better:
24 Nevertheless to abide in the flesh is more needful for you.
“In contact only with good spirits”. One very common explanation is that "we are in contact only with good spirits, not evil ones". People may sincerely think that when they pray and turn to the good spirits, the bad ones will keep out. They may also think that they can always place their trust "in the good spirits" because they always protect and do not harm them. For example, Nicky Cruz describes this in his parents’ lives. His parents lived for a long time under that mistaken belief until, during the latter part of their lives, the truth dawned on them:
My father and mother believed that the good spirits protected our family – but that they both had to be watchful against the evil spirits. They believed that when they called for help from the good spirits, the evil ones often came along.
So they both took some precautions to keep away the evil spirits.
(…) When my father and mother started to practice sorcery, they did not even dream that the evil spirits would take advantage of them. They quite sincerely thought that they were helping people through the good spirits.
They quickly learned the terrible truth.
My father was so deeply under the power of the spirits that he spent almost eighty years without Christ. The truth dawned on him at the moment he took a step towards the Savior. (4).
It is good to keep in mind that it is not even possible to be in communication with the dead, whether they were good or bad in life. The great chasm between us prevents that kind of communication.
The most reasonable explanation for this kind of activity is that the spirits are evil, as mentioned above. They can imitate our beloved relatives, can appear as guiding spirits, our higher ego, internal advisor, or as illuminated and resurrected masters, for example (typically found, at least, in the New Age movement). So it is not a matter of communicating with the "good" spirits of the dead, but of communicating with ancient and familiar spirits as described in the Bible. Their only purpose is to deceive and mislead us. Consider the following verses:
- (Lev 19:31) Regard not them that have familiar spirits, neither seek after wizards, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God.
- (Lev 20:6) And the soul that turns after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a whoring after them, I will even set my face against that soul, and will cut him off from among his people.
- (Deut 18:10-12) There shall not be found among you any one that makes his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that uses divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch.
11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer.
12 For all that do these things are an abomination to the LORD: and because of these abominations the LORD your God does drive them out from before you.
- (Lev 20:27) A man also or woman that has a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones: their blood shall be on them.
- (2 King 21:6) And he made his son pass through the fire, and observed times, and used enchantments, and dealt with familiar spirits and wizards: he worked much wickedness in the sight of the LORD, to provoke him to anger.
- (1 Chron 10:13) So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, even against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire of it;
- (Isa 8:19) And when they shall say to you, Seek to them that have familiar spirits, and to wizards that peep, and that mutter: should not a people seek to their God? for the living to the dead?
- (Isa 29:4) Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvelous work among this people, even a marvelous work and a wonder: for the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid.
- (Acts 16:16-18) And it came to pass, as we went to prayer, a certain damsel possessed with a spirit of divination met us, which brought her masters much gain by soothsaying:
17 The same followed Paul and us, and cried, saying, These men are the servants of the most high God, which show to us the way of salvation.
18 And this did she many days. But Paul, being grieved, turned and said to the spirit, I command you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her. And he came out the same hour.
Why is spiritualism wrong? When we read the verses above about spiritualism, we can see that they forbid any contact with familiar spirits and with the deceased. They teach us that this kind of contact goes against the will of God, and those people who were under the influence of these spirits were under the debt of blood; they were sentenced to death in the days of the First Covenant.
Why is contact with familiar spirits such a serious crime as the Bible teaches us?
The answer is that man is an eternal soul and God loves him and does not want him to go to hell. He does not want anyone to become bound or to lose his eternal soul. God wants the best for everyone of us, so He necessarily warns us.
Any of you who are active in this kind of behaviour, please understand the significance of these warnings. Repent your sins and reject your spiritual contacts and turn to God through Jesus Christ. When you do this, you will be purified of your sins and gain eternal life:
- (1 John 1:9) If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.
- (1 John 2:12) I write to you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name’s sake.
If, instead, you reject the grace of God, then you must pay dearly for your sins by suffering the eternal damnation that has already been prepared for the devil and his angels. Let God touch you and release you from the enemy’s web of lies:
- (Matt 25:41,46) Then shall he say also to them on the left hand, Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:
46 And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.
- (Gal 5:19-21) Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
20 Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, jealousies, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,
21 Contentions, murders, drunkenness, revelings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.
- (Rev 22:12-17) And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.
13 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
14 Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.
15 For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and fornicators, and murderers, and idolaters, and whoever loves and makes a lie.
16 I Jesus have sent my angel to testify to you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.
17 And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that hears say, Come. And let him that is thirsty come. And whoever will, let him take the water of life freely.
Where do the ghost phenomena come from? One thing associated with spiritualism is the ghost phenomena that some people can experience whether willingly or unwillingly. They may, for example, hear clattering sounds or experience other sensory stimulations; they may feel that they are being followed. Very often phenomena of this kind are imagined; they may be hallucinations. However, in some instances these phenomena are real.
Why do some people have these experiences? Why do some people have these experiences while others are completely free from them?
There are always reasons for this; they do not appear just by accident. They have their origins generally in the following things. If you are suffering from these, you will probably recognize some of them:
Occult sciences. The first and most common reason is probably that the current or former residents of the house have taken part in occultism and parapsychological activities. Kurt Koch, who had plenty of experience in this area, wrote:
In my own work of pastoral care, I have often had to face this mysterious thing. I have noticed that it is in connection with occult sciences, which the former or the current residents of the haunted house have practiced. (5)
However, if one turns to Christ and gives his life to God, these phenomena will stop occurring and the spirits will be forced to retreat. If you turn to Jesus Christ when suffering from these, you can be freed from them. It takes place when you resist Satan and his spirits in the name of Jesus Christ, and they will be forced to flee:
- (Jam 4:7) Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.
Objects. One source of entry can be objects that have been made for worshipping idols. They are the property of the evil spirits and sometimes even Christians have brought these "condemned" objects into their homes, generally as souvenirs. Then they have begun to experience illness, anxiety, and inexplicable problems. Occult books can also serve as gates to this kind of phenomena.
The next passage illustrates this kind of activity. The author had received a gift, the tail of a cow that had been cursed by a spirit of death. However, he was freed immediately from his distress when he destroyed this magic object by burning it (compare Acts 19:18,19):
The prophet bowed his head in prayer and after a few seconds he asked, "I see on the wall of your home a stick but I do not understand what it means. Have you any idea what it can be?” Then his wife continued, "I also see a stick and on its end there are hairs!”
"It is the tail of a cow, a gift given by a Mumuye man. I hung it on the wall of the hall.”
"It is an object of witchcraft. Cursed with the spirit of death. Go and burn it, so you can be freed!”
Think! No wonder Nabang had sensed in me "the smell of death". The prophet bowed his head in prayer. (…)
My home was a hundred and fifty kilometers away but it was not difficult for the prophets to see it. In the dusk of the evening, I took that tail of a cow from the wall. I took some matches and my bag. When I was walking nonchalantly to the forest nearby, I felt a shortness of breath and the air felt as if I was under a stone. When I reached the place in the bushes I burned that tail. At the very same moment, the internal bandage broke, the distress that had lasted for months disappeared, and I was free again. The nightly attacks of the demons stopped and the feeling of death in my body disappeared. What else could I say than HALLELUJAH! (6)
Certain people. Many phenomena are associated with certain people -- mediums. When this kind of person leaves your physical presence, the phenomena will stop, or may go with this person to a new place. Often these kinds of contact persons are still young.
Visit to a healer. One possible source of these phenomena can be that someone in the family has gone to a healer or has been treated with magic to be cured of an illness; this may have opened the door to spirits.
Kurt Koch describes a woman who was healed by a magician. As a result of that treatment, she had to suffer from these phenomena:
An old married woman came to me for pastoral care. She told me about strange ghost phenomena that appeared in her house. Dogs ran in her bedroom at night and tried to lick her. Invisible hands raised her bed up, and occasionally she had seen several figures in her room. When she prayed, the ghost phenomena immediately disappeared. This haunting had lasted for many years. The woman was completely healthy, and she did not suffer from any mental illness. I asked her if she had ever dealt with occultism, and she answered that she had been healed through black magic from diphtheria and some other illnesses. (7)
Family. If occultism has been practiced in a person’s family, descendants in the family can also be bound and suffer because of that activity. If these activities bind you but you break away from them and resist the evil powers in the name of Jesus Christ, you can be freed.
HOW ABOUT THE WORSHIP OF OUR FOREFATHERS? One thing that is associated with the whereabouts of the dead is the worship of forefathers and saints. We are going to examine this now. This appears in many nations, especially in Asia and also with the primitive people, and is very problematic for many people. They do not always know how to react to this and how to deal with it. The next quote from present-day Japan describes this:
In each Japanese home or at least in possession of each family, there is an altar of Buddha before which the spirits of the forefathers are worshipped. The Japanese believe that the neglect of this worship will result in punishment: the house will burn down, a member of the family will become seriously ill, a car accident will take place. I do not know if the civilized Japanese really seriously believe in the existence of the spirits but I know that most of them fear their revenge. (8)
Spirits of the forefathers are thought to affect living people by causing good or evil deeds to be done. It is thought that they can either bring their descendants welfare, health and prosperity, or create illnesses and bad things. The only way to affect the outcome is to appease the spirits adequately with, for example, different kinds of food sacrifices. However, it is often difficult to say what draws these people to serve such spirits. Is it the fear of revenge or attachment?
You who believe in this view should take into consideration the next couple of points. There are reasons to take these into consideration, perhaps because you have made a mistake:
No connection. Firstly, the Bible verses provided earlier teach us that the spirits of the dead cannot come and wander on the Earth or appear to people. If these verses really are true, it means that it is impossible for us to be in contact with the dead and whatever we do does not affect them in any way. To expect assistance or revenge from them is futile because they can no longer affect this world.
Evil spirits. The second thing is that if any spirit appears to you and troubles you, it can be a demonic spirit. They live between the Earth and Heaven and can trouble people, as we learn in the Bible. (However, they are easy to drive away in the name of Jesus Luke 10:17, if you first turn to Him.) You have actually been in contact with the evil spirits, not the spirits of the dead. Note the following verses:
- (1 Cor 10:19-20) What say I then? that the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any thing?
20 But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that you should have fellowship with devils.
- (Deut 32:17) They sacrificed to devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared not.
Respect and worship. One thing that is also worth noting is that respect shown to parents and ancestors is not wrong. It is not wrong because Jesus taught so (Mark 7:9,10 and 10:19).
However, God alone is worthy of our worship, because He has created our forefathers and all people. He alone is worthy of our worship and our praise and from Him we can ask for help when we need it (Phil 4:6: Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God.). We can respect and appreciate our forefathers, and it is not a bad thing to take care of their graves. But it does not make any difference to them:
- Who has said this to you? Of course the Christians can take care of their graves. Oh, if you saw the Finnish cemeteries; they are like the most beautiful gardens.
- Perhaps I have misunderstood… I do not even remember from where I got such an idea.
Nakagawa-san seems to be relieved.
- It is a different thing to take care of a grave and to worship spirits. You do not have to take food sacrifices there.
In my opinion, the local Christian church should develop Japanese ways to respect the memory of the forefathers. It is a huge part of this culture. The Christians unnecessarily get a reputation that they do not respect their forefathers – when respecting and worshipping are, however, two different issues altogether. (9)
1. Raphael Gasson, The Challenging Counterfeit, eight printing USA, p. 89
2. Roy Allan Anderson, Henkimaailman salaisuudet (Secrets of the Spirit world), p. 94
3. Quote from Jälleensyntyminen vai ruumiin ylösnousemus (Reincarnation), Mark Albrecht, p. 93
4. Nicky Cruz, Juokse henkesi edestä (Devil on the Run), p. 22, 178
5. Kurt Koch, Taikauskot (Der Aberglaube), p. 50
6. Vanhaparta, Operaatio Mumuye jatkuu, p. 184, 185
7. Kurt Koch, Taikauskot (Der Aberglaube), p. 51
8. Mailis Janatuinen, Tapahtui Tamashimassa, p. 13
9. Mailis Janatuinen, Tapahtui Tamashimassa, p. 89,90
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