There is ample evidence for the historical nature of the Flood in nature and in human tradition. Read how much evidence there is
The Flood has often been regarded as a mere legend. Especially those people who believe in the theory of evolution do not believe that the Flood ever took place. They think it is impossible for such an event to have happened on Earth.
Did the Flood really happen? If we examine fossil records and consider traditional folklore, we find that the Flood did occur. Both sources indicate that a massive destruction took place at some point in our past. We examine these different references to the Flood in the following text.
The mass graves of animals
- It has been estimated that there are about 800 billion skeletal vertebrates buried in the Karroo region in South Africa (Robert Broom's article in the Science, January 1959). The large size of this burial site suggests that some unnatural event happened. The animals must have been buried very quickly. Generally, this kind of event can be best explained by a mass destruction such as the Flood, which can also instantaneously accumulate layers of soil on animals.
- One special thing is the permafrost in Alaska and Siberia. Millions of tons of animal bones can be found buried beneath permafrost. Significantly, several of these animals were large mammals that could not have survived in cold conditions and could not have buried themselves. The next passage from the book Maailman Luonto, describes this. It states that these large animals were found deep in the ground alongside different kinds of vegetation:
Of particular interest here is the fact that the permafrost in Alaska and in Siberia can include noticeable amounts of bones and meat, and half-rotted vegetation and other remains of the organic world. In some places, these add up to a notable part of the soil. A considerable part of the remains are from large animals, such as hairy rhinoceroses, giant lions, beavers, buffaloes, musk, oxen, mammoths, and hairy elephants, which have become extinct… That is why it is clear that the climate in Alaska was much warmer before it became frozen.
- An indication of the large mass graves are the remains of rhinoceroses, camels, wild boars and numerous other animals in Agate Spring, Nebraska. According to the experts, over 9,000 skeletons of large animals are buried there.
- The remains of animals were dug up in Odessa, Russia in 1845 and more than 100 bones belonging to bears and several bones belonging to horses, boars, mammoths, rhinoceroses, buffaloes, deer, wolves, hyenas, different insect eaters, rodents, otters, rodents and foxes were found. These were upside down mixed with plant remains, birds and even with fish (!). Finding fish among these land animals seems to be a clear proof of the Flood. How can fish appear in the same strata as land animals?
- Mounds with large quantities of bones belonging to the hippopotamus were found in Palermo, Italy. There are also bones belonging to young hippopotamus, which would indicate that they did not die naturally. The presence of these young hippos clearly points to the Flood.
- A large amount of skeletal remains of herbivores and carnivores were discovered in caves in Yorkshire, China, the east coast of USA and Alaska. In Yorkshire, the skeletal remains of elephants, rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, horse, wild reindeer, tiger, bear, wolf, horse, fox, rabbit, and many birds were found in a cave. Usually, animals that eat each other would not have lived together.
- Another large grave is found in France, where more than 10,000 skeletal remains of horses were found.
- Burial places of dinosaurs have been found. In Belgium, for example, many hundreds, even thousands of bones belonging to small dinosaurs were found buried 300 meters deep in a clay layer. In Montana USA, about 10,000 bones belonging to the duck lizard were found; graves containing hundreds of bones belonging to rhinoceros lizards have also been found in Alberta, Canada. There have also been other smaller dinosaur-related burial grounds found in different places around the world. It is likely that these animals died in a simultaneous devastating event.
One example is also in the book The Age of Dinosaurs, by well-known evolution researcher Björn Kurten. He mentions that several dinosaur fossils were found in a swimming position with their heads twisted backwards, as though trapped in the moment of a deadly struggle.
FOSSILS OF TREE TRUNKS MIXED UP AND UPSIDE DOWN. As noted earlier, fossils of tree trunks have been found in buried through many different layers, in different parts of the world. Very often, these trunks and logs are just one big mess piled together with sludge, bones and mud; theirs roots might also be upside down, which is evidence of some devastating event. They must have been buried very quickly in ground layers; otherwise, there would not exist any fossils to be found.
THE ORIGIN OF FOSSILS. Buried fossils are powerful evidence of the Flood. Mud and sludge avalanches buried these animals and plants very quickly, as we can see from the soil layers. If this had not taken place quickly, the fossils could not have been formed, because otherwise bacteria and scavengers would have decomposed them in a short time. It is noteworthy that nowadays fossils are not formed. The well-known explorer Nordenskiöld noticed that it is easier to find old remains of gigantic lizards in Spitzbergen than those of recently buried seals, even though there are millions of seals in that area.
Therefore, it is a huge problem to try to explain how large animals such as mammoths, dinosaurs, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses and other large animals could have been buried under mud and the layers of the earth if one does not believe in the Flood. For example, five million mammoths are supposed to have been buried in the ground. Under the current conditions, these animals would not be buried in the ground, they would decay quickly on the ground or the scavengers would eat them immediately. The next description (James Dana, Manual of Geology, p. 141) indicates how quick burying is necessary to create fossils:
Vertebrate animals, such as fish, reptiles etc., decompose when their soft parts are removed. They must be buried quickly after death to avoid decaying and being eaten by other animals.
BURIED ALIVE. Several fossils provide very clear evidence of the fact that they were buried quickly.
In addition, there are also several pieces of evidence that show these animals were still alive when buried. Consider the following examples:
Fish fossils. A large number of fish fossils have been found with signs of having been buried alive and instantaneously.
Fish fossils have been found with an unfinished meal of smaller fish still in their mouths when they were suddenly buried under great masses of soil. It can hardly be claimed that this was a normal death. Feeding was a part of the normal life of a fish and therefore it can be concluded that death came quickly and the fish were instantly buried.
Secondly, these fish fossils were found with all their scales still intact, mouths open and all fins spread out. This indicates that they must have been alive and struggling until they died. Quick burial under sludge – as would happen in the Flood -- would be the most probable way for these fish to die. For example, about 9 out of every 10 armour fish found in old red sandstone layers were found in this position. They had their two horns raised as a sign of danger, suggesting that they were buried quickly.
Moreover, fish fossils cannot be formed in any other way – except in the way mentioned before – because under normal conditions fish decompose very quickly or are eaten by other animals. However, in fish burial sites millions of such fish fossils can be found.
Bivalve mussels and oysters. Bivalve mussels and oysters have been found in closed position, indicating that they were buried alive. Usually, when these animals die the muscle that holds their shells closed relaxes allowing sand and clay to get in. These fossils, however, are usually found closed tightly and there is no sand or clay between the shells. Since these shells are tightly closed, it indicates that these animals have been buried when they were still alive.
Mammoths. Among other animals, large mammoths have also been found. It has been estimated that five million of them were buried. Tons of their remains, mainly tusks, have been dug from the ground and sold in ivory trade, which suggests the scope of these findings.
What is remarkable about these mammoth findings is that the mammoths were found preserved in very good condition. Some were found in a standing position (!), some had undigested food still in their mouths and stomachs, some of them were whole and undamaged.
These findings are made all around the world, which indicates that they were not killed in a localized spring flood, through slow death from starvation, or any ordinary death – as many people would have us believe. There is no other way to explain the simultaneous and violent death of hundreds of thousands of animals, all buried in sludge layers. Only when we accept the Flood as fact can we find a credible cause for this phenomenon.
MARINE CREATURES AND PARTS OF THEM FOUND ON MOUNTAINS AND DRY LAND.
- (Gen 7:19) And the waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered.
- (2 Pet 3:6) … Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished
Perhaps the best evidence of a global Flood is the fact that we can find remains of marine creatures on mountains and dry land. (Similar examples can be found in nature programs on television.) These remains certainly could not exist in their current locations if the sea had not at some time covered these areas.
- 500 years before the beginning of the modern calendar, Pythagoras found remains of marine creatures on mountains.(p.11 Planeetta maa (“Planet Earth”)).
- A hundred years later, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote that seashells were collected from the desert in Egypt. He concluded that the sea must have reached as far as the desert (p. 11 "Planeetta maa"). Remains of large marine animals have also been found in the large deserts of Africa.
- Xenofanes found marine fossils in inland areas far away from the sea in about 500 B.C. He also found fish fossils in a quarry in Syracuse in Sicily, and in Malta and the Italian mainland. He concluded that these areas had earlier been covered by sea (p. 17 Nils Edelman - Viisaita ja veijareita geologian maailmassa).
- Charles Darwin also ran into marine remains when he found a whale skeleton in the mountainous regions of Peru.
- Albaro Alonzo Barba, who was a mining director in Petos, mentions in his book written in 1640, that he had found strange shells in rocks between Potos and Oroneste in Bolivia, 3,000 metres above sea level (p. 54 Nils Edelman: Viisaita ja veijareita geologian maailmassa )
- German P. S. Pallas in the 1700s found stratified limestone and clay slates in the mountains of the Ural and Altai – both in Russia – which held remains of marine animals and plants (p. 125 Nils Edelman: Viisaita ja veijareita geologian maailmassa).
- Many marine organisms such as mussels, ammonites, belemnites, (ammonites and belemnites lived at the same time as dinosaurs), bone fish, sea lilies, coral and plankton fossils and relatives of the current sea urchins and starfishes were found many kilometres above sea level in the Himalayas. The book Maapallo Ihmeiden Planeetta ( p. 55) describes these remains in the following way:
Harutaka Sakai from the Japanese University in Kyushu has for many years researched these marine fossils in the Himalayan Mountains. He and his group have listed a whole aquarium from the Mesozoic period. Tender sea lilies, relatives to the current sea urchins and starfishes, were found on cliffs over three kilometres above sea level. Ammonites, belemnites, corals, and plankton fossils are found in the rocks of the mountains. (…)
At an altitude of two kilometres above sea level, the geologists found markings the sea had made. There was a wavelike rock surface, similar to that which is formed by waves on sand in low water. Yellow stripes of limestone have been found even on the peak of Mount Everest, formed from innumerable remains of marine creatures under water.
- Numerous findings have been made of mussels, crustaceans, ammonites, stripes, and clay slate layers including sea fossils in the Himalayas, Alps, Andes, and the Rocky Mountains. Some of these findings have been at an altitude of several kilometers. The following description of the Alps indicates the existence of these marine fossils:
There is reason to look closely at the original nature of the rocks in the mountain ranges. It is best seen in the Alps, in the lime Alps of the northern, so-called Helvetian zone. Limestone is the main rock material. If we were to scale the steep slopes of some mountain or peak – if we had the energy to climb up there – we would find fossilized remains of marine creatures. They are often badly damaged, but it is possible to find recognizable pieces. All those fossils are lime shells or skeletons of sea creatures. Among them are spiral twisted ammonites and many bivalves. (…) The reader might wonder at this point what it means that mountain ranges hold so many sediments, which can also be found stratified in the bottom of the sea. (p. 236,237, Pentti Eskola, Muuttuva maa)
- Limestone covering almost a quarter of China includes the remains of corals originating from the sea (p. 97,100-106 “Maapallo ihmeiden planeetta”). There are similar areas also in Yugoslavia and the Alps.
- In a slate quarry in the Snowdon Mountains in England, there are enormous gravel and sand layers full of shells of shore mussels about 1,400 feet above sea level.
- Remains of fish lizards or Ichthyosaurs that could grow up to several meters, have been found in England and Germany buried into clay layers with their bones and skins. One of the skeletons, preserved in the collection of Helsinki University Geological Institute, was found in a clay stone in Holzmaden of Wurttenberg. It is 2.5 meters long and has been extremely well preserved. (p. 371 "Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
-In central France (Saint-Laon, Vienne), shells of ammonites have been found in the limestone. (p. 365 "Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
- The limestone area in Solnhofen of Bavaria has two fossils of the bird lizard (Archaeopteryx). From the same limestone area, other well preserved fossils, such as insects, medusas, crayfishes, belemnites, and fishes have also been found. (p. 372, "Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
- There are some areas in London, Paris, and Vienna which are former sea bed. For example, some limestone areas in Paris are composed mainly of mollusk shells from the tropical seas. (s. 377 "Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
- In the vicinity of Berlin, silt layers several meters thick include shells of an extinct gastropod (Paludina diluviana), and remains of pikes. (p. 410 "muuttuva maa, Pentti Eskola)
- Such areas as Syria, Arabia, the current Israel, and Egypt have been sea beds. (p.401, 402 "Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
- Old oyster fossils have been found in Tunisia, near the town of Tozeur. (p. 90 Björn Kurten, Kuinka Mammutti pakastetaan)
- In the desert of Faijum 60 kilometers south-west of Cairo, remains of whales and sea lions have been found on the slopes of a high ridge of Djebel Qatran. (p. 23 Björn Kurten, Jääkausi, [The Ice Age])
- From many different parts of the globe, layers of fish fossils have been found containing hundreds of thousands or millions of fish. For example, in the Herring fossil layers in California, it is estimated that there are a billion fish in an area of ten square kilometers. The areas from Germany to the Caspian Sea, Italy, Scotland, Denmark (in the chalk cliff of Steven's Klint) and South of Spain (the hills of Caravaca) include layers of millions of fish fossils. All these dry land areas must have been covered by the sea or these fish findings would not be possible.
- The well-known clay slate layers in Burgess, found in the Rocky Mountains in the year 1909, include tens of thousands of fossils from the ancient sea bed, nowadays at a height of over 2,000 meters above sea level.
- From the north-west parts of Australia (p. 96 Maapallo ihmeiden planeetta) and New Guinea, corals and fossils of fish can be found.
- From the mainland of North America, remains of whales were found at a great distance from the sea. These findings have been made for instance on Ontario Lake, in Vermont, Quebec, and St. Lawrence. Therefore, these areas must have been covered by sea at some time in the distant past.
- Many of the high places around the world – the Himalayas and other high mountains – show signs of ancient coastlines and wave action. These findings have also been made in New Guinea, Italy, Sicily, England, Ireland, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Novaja-Semlja, the Land of Franz Joseph, Greenland, in extensive areas in North and South America, Algeria, Spain … the list goes on and on. (The Information comes mainly from Maanpinnan muodot ja niiden synty, p. 99,100 / by Iivari Leiviskä ).
Ancient shorelines have also been found in Finland and neighboring countries. One example is Pyhätunturi, where there are stones with signs of waves. Signs of the ancient shores can also be found on the slopes of many hills. In the southern part of Finland, such places are Korppoo, Jurmo, Kaunissaari in Pyhtää and Virttaankangas in Säkylä, as well as further up north, for example Lauhanvuori, Rokua and Aavasaksa. (From the book Jokamiehen geologia, p. 96 / by Kalle Taipale, Jouko.T. Parviainen)
- Lava has been found on the mountains of Ararat at a height of 4,500 meters above sea level, and can only be a product of underwater volcanic eruptions (Molen, M., Vårt ursprung?, 1991, p. 246)
• One sign of the Flood is the oceanic sedimentary rocks. They are far more common than any other sedimentary rocks combined. James Hutton, regarded as the father of geology, referred to this observation already over two centuries ago:
We have to conclude that all the layers of earth (...) were formed by sand and gravel that piled up on the seabed, crustacean shells and coral matter, soil and clay. (J. Hutton, The Theory of the Earth l, 26. 1785)
J.S. Shelton: On mainland, oceanic sediment rock foundations are far more common and wider than all the other sediment rock foundations combined. This is one of the simple facts that requires explanation, as it is in the core of everything that is associated with humans’ continuous efforts to understand the changing geography of the geological past. (1)
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND THE FLOOD. We do not need to search for information about the Flood only in nature; we find evidence of it in the traditions of various nations. It has been estimated that there are at least 140–150 of these stories told by cultures around the world. Many of these stories have (naturally) changed with time, but they all have in common the mention of water as the cause of devastation. Many of these stories also mention previous good times, The Fall of man and the confusion of the languages which took place in Babel (Babylon) – all events the Bible also mentions.
These stories can be found among different tribes, such as Babylonians, natives Australians, Miao tribe in China, African Efe dwarfs, Hopi Indians in America and the Padago tribe in North America. The story of the Flood is so widely told around the world that it seems likely that the Flood really happened.
Around 500 cultures – including indigenous peoples of Greece, China, Peru and North America – are known in the world where the legends and myths describe a compelling story of a large flood that changed the history of the tribe. In many stories, only a few people survived the flood, just like in the case of Noah. Many of the peoples considered the flood to have been caused by gods who, for one reason or another, got bored with the human kind. Perhaps the people were corrupt, like in Noah’s times and in a legend by the Native American Hopi tribe of North America, or perhaps there were too many and too noisy people, like in the Gilgamesh epic. (2)
Lenormant made the following statement in Beginning of History:
“We are able to prove that the story of the Flood is part of the universal traditions in all branches of the human family, and anything that is such definite and uniform in the tradition can surely not be considered an imaginary tale. It must be the memory of a true and terrifying event, an event that made such a huge impact on the first of the human race that even their descendents have not forgotten it.” (3)
Peoples of different races have different heritage stories about the enormous flood catastrophe. The Greeks have told a story about the Flood, and it is centered around a character named Deukalion; even long before Columbus, the Native Americans had their own stories, which had kept alive the memory of a great flood; Tales about a flood have been moved on from generation to generation up until this day also in Australia, India, Polynesia, Tibet, Kašmir and Lithuania. Are they all just tales and stories? Are they all made up? It is presumable that they all describe the same great catastrophe. (4)
If the world-wide Flood was not real, some nations would have explained that frightening volcanic eruptions, large snow storms, droughts (...) have destroyed their evil ancestors. The universality of the story of the Flood is therefore one of the best pieces of evidence of its truthfulness. We could dismiss any of these individual legends and think it was only imagination, but together, from a global perspective, they are almost indisputable. (The Earth)
Up next, more references on the same topic. Past historians have mentioned the Flood as a real historical event. The current rewriting of history, on the other hand, tries to change past history by denying this great flood catastrophe and by extending history with hundred thousand and millions of years, which are numbers that we cannot be certain of, as there is no convincing evidence.
• Historian Josefus and Babylonian Berosus have mentioned the remains of Noah’s Ark
• Greek historian Herodotus has referred to the Scythians in the fifth part of his book The Histories. He refers to them as the descendants of Japhet (Noah’s son) (Gen 10:1,2: Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and to them were sons born after the flood. The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.)
• In the Epic of Gilgamesh Utnapisthim was ordered to build a ship: “Man of Shuruppak, son of Ubar-Tutu. Tear down (this) house, build a ship, give up possessions, seek thou life. Despise property and keep the soul alive. Aboard the ship take thou the seed of all living things. The ship that thou shalt build, her dimensions shall be to measure.”
• The Assyrian myth about the Flood describes building the ship:
it [the ark] - -
- - I will destroy sinners and life.
- - Let the seed of life enter inside, all of that, in the ship, the ship that you shall make.
The ark is to be three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits wide and thirty cubits high.
- - Let it go deep. –
I did as I was commanded and I said to the Lord, my Lord:
When I finish
the ship, which you commanded me to built,
the young and the old ones will ridicule me. (5)
• Aztecs have referred to the Flood:
When the world had existed for 1716 years, the Flood came: “The whole of mankind disappeared and drowned, and
they noticed they had turned into fish. Everything disappeared in one single day”. Only Nata and his wife Nana were saved, because Titlachauan god had told them to build a boat from cypress tree. (6)
• A clay tablet was found from a Babylonian city, Nippur, during the 1890s, and the tablet was older than the Epic of Gilgamesh. The clay tablet dates at least back to 2100 B.C., as the place where it was found, a public library, was destroyed at that time.
Its depiction is very similar to the one in the Book of Genesis. It mentions the coming of the Flood and advises to build a large vessel to protect the spared ones. The text in the tablet was translated by an expert assyriologist Herman Hilprecht. The words in square brackets cannot be ciphered from the text, but Hilprecht has added them based on factual connections:
(2)……[the confines of heaven and Earth I] will loosen
• When it comes to Egyptian chronology, it could be off by centuries. Egyptians didn’t have a list of their rulers during their early days, but an Egyptian priest Manetho made one centuries later (ca. 270 B.C.). The fact that Manetho thought some kings ruled after each other, although it has been discovered that they ruled at the same time, has been considered as an error in his list, among other things.
Despite all this, Manetho confirms the historic status of the Book of Genesis. He ”wrote that after ’the Flood’ Noah’s son Ham got a son ‘Egyptos or Mizraim’, who at the time was the first to settle in the current region of Egypt, when the clans began to disperse.” (8)
LETTER SYMBOLS. According to the Bible, when Noah went into the Ark there were only seven other people with him; altogether there were eight people in the Ark. (Gen 7:7 and 1 Peter 3:20).
However, it is interesting that the same number eight and a clear reference to the Flood appear even in the letter symbols, especially in the Chinese writing system. In the Chinese writing system, a symbol of a ship is a boat with eight people in it, the same number as in the Ark of Noah! The symbol for the word “flood” also has the number eight! It cannot be mere coincidence that the same number, eight, is associated with the symbols of the ship and the Flood. This association is certainly there because the Chinese have preserved within their traditions the same knowledge about a global Flood that is held by other cultures. They have also believed since ancient times that there is only one God in Heaven.
The second example. The Chinese symbol of the ship is a boat with eight people in it. Eight people? The Ark of Noah had exactly eight people in it.
(…) All researchers are not of the same opinion on the exact meaning of every symbol. In any case, the Chinese themselves (such as many Japanese, who – practically speaking – have the same writing system) are interested in the interpretations the missionaries have presented to them. Even though the theories were not right, mere speaking of them might be enough to indicate the spiritual truth for unbelievers.
I myself have noticed how many Chinese and Japanese preachers think that these different symbols are a good way to understand the thinking of their people. (Don Richardson, Eternity in their Hearts)
The word righteous. In the Chinese writing system, there is also another peculiar symbol: the word “righteous”. The symbol of righteous is composed of two different parts: the upper part means a lamb and below it is the personal pronoun I. Therefore, there has been a view that people cannot be righteous by themselves. They are righteous only when they are under the lamb. The Chinese writing system teaches the same messages as the New Testament. We must live under the Lamb given to us by God (Jesus Christ), so that we may be made righteous. This is referred to in the next Bible verses:
- (John 1:29) The next day John sees Jesus coming to him, and said, Behold the Lamb of God, which takes away the sin of the world.
- (1 Cor 1:30) But of him are you in Christ Jesus, who of God is made to us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption
CARBON AND OIL, we are usually taught, were formed through a slow process that required millions of years. People talk about a carbon era, when carbon was especially formed.
Were these really formed hundreds of millions years ago? Have they existed for millions of years, or have they not? The following information suggests that they were formed more recently -- in the immediate past -- only a few thousands years ago, and that they resulted from the Flood mentioned in the Bible.
The age of carbon deposits and oil wells. The first point is that evidence of the age of carbon and oil deposits do not refer to great periods of time. We talked about this already earlier and the next two points prove this:
- The pressure of oil wells is so high (it is common that oil can gush into the air from a drilled hole in the ground), that they cannot be more than 10,000 years old. (Chapters 12-13 of Prehistory and earth models by Melvin A. Cook, Max Parrish and company, 1966). If these wells were millions of years old, the pressure would have dissipated a long time ago.
- People's footprints have been found in carbon layers described as "250–300 million years old" in many areas (Mexico, Arizona, Illinois, New Mexico, and Kentucky, among others). Objects belonging to a man and human fossils (!) have been found in these same layers. This means that either humans were inhabiting the earth 300 million years ago, or that those carbon layers are really only a few thousand years old. (Glashouver, W.J.J., So entstand die Welt, Hänssler, 1980, ss. 115-6; Bowden, M., Ape-men – Fact or Fallacy? Sovereign Publications, 1981; Barnes, F.A., The Case of the Bones in Stone, Desert/February, 1975, p. 36-39). It is more probable that the latter alternative is true, because even scientists do not believe that people inhabited the Earth 300 million years ago:
"If man (...) in any form existed as early as in the Iron Carbon period, the whole geological science is so completely wrong that all geologists should resign from their jobs and become truck drivers. So, at least for the present, science rejects the tempting alternative of man having left those footprints." (The Carboniferous Mystery, Scientific Monthly, vol. 162, Jan.1940, p.14)
The speed of formation. Concerning the formation of oil and carbon it does not need to take a long time. One support for this theory is found in the fact that during World War II oil was made from coal and lignite in Germany, and with success. It did not take eons, but happened in a short time. Using a different technology more recently, a barrel of oil was produced in 20 minutes from one ton of organic waste (Machine design, 14 May 1970).
It has also been possible to transform wood and cellulose into carbon or carbon-like materials in just a few hours. This shows that when the conditions are right, oil and carbon can be formed quite quickly. It does not require millions of years for them to be formed. Only theories about evolution need millions of years. The following example proves that mineral coal can be formed in a short period of time, in only a couple of weeks. The author proves that such events could have occurred quickly, in connection with the Flood.
Scientists in the Argonne National Laboratory (in the US) have proven that top-class black carbon can be obtained utilising the following method: take some lignin (an essential ingredient in wood) and mix it with some acidic clay and water. Heat the mixture in an oxygen-free closed quartz container at 150 ºC without increasing the pressure. This is not a high temperature from the geological viewpoint – actually, there is nothing exceptional or “unnatural” about the ingredients, either. Neither does the process take millions of years – it only takes 4–36 weeks!
(...) Famous Australian geologist Sir Edgeworth David described in his report of 1907 still standing charred tree trunks that were found in between layers of black carbon in Newcastle (Australia). The bottom parts of the trunks had been buried deep into the carbon stratum, and then the trunks went right through the strata above, finally ending up in the carbon stratum on top!
To think that people try to explain this with slow processes taking place in two separate swamps, interspersed by long periods of time. It is clear that the prejudice of “slow, gradual development” has prevented the more obvious explanation of the origin of the carbon, i.e. a huge mass of water caused by an act of God quickly buried the uprooted plants.
Moving water can quickly cause major geological changes – particularly if there is lots of water. Most people think that such changes must occur over a period of millions of years. (…)
Some geologists (including many of those who believe in the processes of “millions of years”) now say that the Grand Canyon was formed in the same manner – in a catastrophe – instead of being formed over a period of millions of years because of erosion caused by the Colorado River.
The Flood lasted for one year, covered mountains, caused global upheaval and rent the earth when water (and inevitably also magma) gushed up for months (”the fountains of the great deep broke up”, Gen 7:11). Such a frightening catastrophe would cause an incredible amount of geological changes. (9)
The evidence supporting short-term formation. The following points strongly support the notion that carbon and oil were created quickly during the Flood, not slowly over millions of years:
- Fossils of tree trunks penetrating through various layers can be found in the middle of carbon layers. An old picture of a coal mine in France shows how five tree trunks penetrate about ten layers. These fossils could not have been formed or appeared if the carbon layers were formed over a course of millions of years.
- Many carbon layers have noticeable layers of fossilized shells of marine animals ("A note on the occurrence of marine animal remains in a Lancashire coal ball", Geological magazine, 118:307, 1981 and Weir, J. "Recent studies of shell of the coal measures ", Science progress, 38:445, 1950). Also, plants that do not even grow in swamp areas have been found in these carbon layers. These findings clearly point to the Flood, which would have transported marine animals and other life forms amongst the plants found on dry land.
Prof. Price presents cases where 50–100 coal layers are one top of each other and between them there are layers including fossils from deep sea. He deems this piece of evidence so strong and convincing that he has never tried to explain these facts on grounds of Lyell’s uniformity theory. (Wiljam Aittala: Kaikkeuden sanoma, p. 198)
- Carbon and oil are not being naturally formed nowadays. That is why they are called non-renewable natural resources. They are not being naturally formed even in tropical countries, even though conditions in those countries should be suitable. On the contrary, the plants there only rot quickly and no oil or carbon is created.
Therefore, carbon and oil could only have been formed during a natural catastrophe that suddenly covered the plants beneath ground, compressing them under high pressure with no oxygen to ruin them (high pressure and lack of oxygen are considered necessary for the formation of carbon; in addition, bacteria needs oxygen in order to decompose plant waste). The Flood that accumulated mud and soil is the best way to explain this kind of an event. The next quote from a book of a Finnish geologist (Pentti Eskola: "Muuttuva maa", p. 114) refers to the same issue. It indicates that, in connection with the coal seams, there are clay stones that have been stratified from water. The quote refers clearly to the Flood as having occurred only a couple of thousand years ago:
“Under and above the coal seams there are, as has been said, regular layers of clay stone, and from their structure we can see that they have been stratified from water."
People generally believe that the destruction of dinosaurs took place millions of years ago during the final phase of the Cretaceous period, also destroying ammonites, belemnites, and several other species of plants and animals. The devastation is believed to have swept away a great many of the animals of the Cretaceous period.
Is that belief true? Were the dinosaurs really destroyed during the so-called Cretaceous period millions of years ago, or were they destroyed in the Flood? Let’s study this, along with other common theories.
Were dinosaurs destroyed by an epidemic, a virus, or egg robbers? Some people theorize that dinosaurs were destroyed by an epidemic or a virus. Others theorize that other animals suddenly started eating dinosaur eggs.
However, there is a big problem with both theories: neither explains how other plants and animals -- plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, pterosaurs, plants, herbivores ammonites, and belemnites -- could have died at the same time. (Ammonites and belemnites are marine animals whose fossils have been found on the slopes of the Alps and Himalayas, among other places.) Why did these other species die at the same time? Viruses certainly cannot be the killer; how can viruses destroy quite different species, marine and land animals, even plants? Such viruses are not known.
The egg-eater theory does not explain the simultaneous destruction of both animal and plant species. Such large-scale destruction, and extinction of so many species at the same time, cannot be laid at the feet of vaguely identified egg-eaters. There must be a better explanation.
Was a meteorite the cause of the devastation? Some people theorize that a meteorite raised an enormous dust cloud, and that this dust cloud blocked the Sun for such a long time that all the plants died and the herbivores starved to death.
There is, however, one problem with this theory of a slow change in the climate. This theory, or the theories mentioned above, cannot explain how fossils of dinosaurs can be found inside the rocks and mountains in large areas of the globe. They can be found around the world inside hard rock, which is really strange. It is strange because any large animal – perhaps 20 meters long – can not go inside a hard rock. Time does not help, either. Even if we waited millions of years for these animals to be buried in the ground and change into fossils, they would rot away before that or other animals would eat them. Actually, whenever we see a dinosaur fossil or other fossils, they must have been buried quickly under sludge and mud. They cannot have been born in any other way:
It is apparent that if the formation of strata was to take place in such a slow tempo, no fossils could be preserved as they would not be buried into sediment before decomposing caused by water acids, or before they were destroyed and broken into pieces because of rubbing and hitting against the bottoms of shallow seas. They can be covered in sediment only in an accident in which they are buried quickly." (Geochronology or the Age of the Earth on grounds of Sediments and Life, Bulletin of the National Research Council No. 80, Washington D. C., 1931, p. 14)
Our conclusion must be that these dinosaurs that have been found around the world must have been buried very quickly under mud and slime deposits. The soft slime first covered them and then become hard like cement. This is the only way we can explain the fossils of dinosaurs, mammoths, and other animals. This could have happened in the Flood.
Perhaps the next description gives a correct view of this. It shows how dinosaurs can be found inside hard rock, which indicates that they must have first been covered by soft slime that then hardened around them. We could expect something like this only in the Flood – not in normal cycles of nature. (The example also refers to how the whirls of water may have accumulated the bones of dinosaurs.) Some points have been marked in bold to make things clearer:
He went to the deserts of South Dakota, where there are bright-colored red, yellow, and orange cliffs and rocks. Already in a few days, he found from the cliff some bones he assumed to be what he had gone to search for. When he dug the rock around the bones, he noted that the bones were the skeleton of an animal. They were not together, as the bones of dinosaurs often are. Many of these piles seemed as if created by a powerful whirl of water.
These bones were now in blue sandstone that is very hard. The sandstone had to be removed by a road scraper and loosened by explosives. Brown and his assistants made a hole of almost seven and a half meters deep to get the bones out. Getting one large skeleton out took them two summers. By no means did they remove the bones from stone. They transported these blocks of stone by train into the museum where the scientists were able to chip the stone material away and set up the skeleton. This tyrant lizard now stands in the exhibition hall of the museum. (p. 72, Dinosaurs / Ruth Wheeler and Harold G. Coffin)
1. J.S. Shelton: Geology illustrated
2. Kalle Taipale: Levoton maapallo, p. 78
3. Toivo Seljavaara: Oliko vedenpaisumus ja Nooan arkki mahdollinen?, p. 5
4. Werner Keller: Raamattu on oikeassa, p. 29
5. Arno C. Gaebelein: Kristillisyys vaiko uskonto?, p. 48
6. Francis Hitching: Arvoitukselliset tapahtumat (The World Atlas of Mysteries), p. 165
7. siteeraus: Luominen 17, p. 39
8. J. Ashton: Evolution Impossible, Master Books, Green Forest AZ, 2012, p. 115, lainaa viitettä 1, p. 7
9. Carl Wieland: Kiviä ja luita (Stones and Bones), p. 12-14
Apocrypha of the Old Testament and the history of the Bible. The same persons and events mentioned on the pages of the Bible also appear in other sources, such as the Old Testament apocryphal books. Read more here
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Apocrypha of the Old Testament and the history of the
The same persons and events mentioned on the pages of the Bible also appear
in other sources, such as the Old Testament apocryphal books. Read more