The Flood has
often been regarded as a mere legend. Especially those people who believe in
the theory of evolution do not believe that the Flood ever took place. They
think it is impossible for such an event to have happened on Earth.
Did the Flood really happen? If we examine
fossil records and consider traditional folklore, we find that the Flood did occur.
Both sources indicate that a massive destruction took place at some point in
our past. We examine these different references to the Flood in the following
THE Mass Graves of Animals
- It has been estimated that there are about 800
billion skeletal vertebrates buried in the Karroo region in South Africa
(Robert Broom's article in the Science, January 1959). The large size of this
burial site suggests that some unnatural event happened. The animals must have
been buried very quickly. Generally, this kind of event can be best explained
by a mass destruction such as the Flood, which can also instantaneously
accumulate layers of soil on animals.
- One special thing is the permafrost in Alaska and
Siberia. Millions of tons of animal bones can be found buried beneath
permafrost. Significantly, several of these animals were large mammals that
could not have survived in cold conditions and could not have buried
themselves. The next passage from the book Maailman Luonto, describes
this. It states that these large animals were found deep in the ground
alongside different kinds of vegetation:
Of particular interest here is the fact that the
permafrost in Alaska and in Siberia can include noticeable amounts of bones and
meat, and half-rotted vegetation and other remains of the organic world. In
some places, these add up to a notable part of the soil. A considerable part of
the remains are from large animals, such as hairy rhinoceroses, giant lions,
beavers, buffaloes, musk, oxen, mammoths, and hairy elephants, which have
become extinct… That is why it is clear that the climate in Alaska was much
warmer before it became frozen.
indication of the large mass graves are the remains of rhinoceroses, camels,
wild boars and numerous other animals in Agate Spring, Nebraska. According to
the experts, over 9,000 skeletons of large animals are buried there.
remains of animals were dug up in Odessa, Russia in 1845 and more than 100
bones belonging to bears and several bones belonging to horses, boars, mammoths,
rhinoceroses, buffaloes, deer, wolves, hyenas, different insect eaters,
rodents, otters, rodents and foxes were found. These were upside down mixed
with plant remains, birds and even with fish (!). Finding fish among these land
animals seems to be a clear proof of the Flood.
Mounds with large quantities of bones belonging to the hippopotamus were found
in Palermo, Italy. There are also bones belonging to young hippopotamus, which
would indicate that they did not die naturally. The presence of these young
hippos clearly points to the Flood.
large amount of skeletal remains of herbivores and carnivores were discovered
in caves in Yorkshire, China, the east coast of USA and Alaska. In Yorkshire,
the skeletal remains of elephants, rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, horse, wild
reindeer, tiger, bear, wolf, horse, fox, rabbit, and many birds were found in a
cave. Usually, animals that eat each other would not have lived together.
Another large grave is found in France, where more than 10,000 skeletal remains
of horses were found.
Burial places of dinosaurs have been found. In Belgium, for example, many
hundreds, even thousands of bones belonging to small dinosaurs were found buried
300 meters deep in a clay layer. In Montana USA, about 10,000 bones belonging
to the duck lizard were found; graves containing hundreds of bones belonging to
rhinoceros lizards have also been found in Alberta, Canada. There have also
been other smaller dinosaur-related burial grounds found in different places
around the world. It is likely that these animals died in a simultaneous
devastating event. (For example, the book The Age of Dinosaurs, by
well-known evolution researcher Björn Kurten, mentions that several dinosaur
fossils were found in a swimming position with their heads twisted backwards,
as though trapped in the moment of a deadly struggle.)
FOSSILS OF TREE
TRUNKS MIXED UP AND UPSIDE DOWN
As noted earlier,
fossils of tree trunks have been found in buried through many different layers,
in different parts of the world. Very often, these trunks and logs are just one
big mess piled together with sludge, bones and mud; theirs roots might also be
upside down, which is evidence of some devastating event. They must have been
buried very quickly in ground layers; otherwise, there would not exist any
fossils to be found.
THE ORIGIN OF
Buried fossils are
powerful evidence of the Flood. Mud and sludge avalanches buried these animals
and plants very quickly, as we can see from the soil layers. If this had not
taken place quickly, the fossils could not have been formed, because otherwise
bacteria and scavengers would have decomposed them in a short time. It is
noteworthy that nowadays fossils are not formed. The well-known explorer
Nordenskiöld noticed that it is easier to find old remains of gigantic lizards
in Spitzbergen than those of recently buried seals, even though there are
millions of seals in that area.
Therefore, it is a huge problem to try to explain how large animals such
as mammoths, dinosaurs, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses and other large
animals could have been buried under mud and the layers of the earth if one
does not believe in the Flood. For example, five million mammoths are supposed
to have been buried in the ground. Under the current conditions, these animals
would not be buried in the ground, they would decay quickly on the ground or
the scavengers would eat them immediately. The next description (James Dana, Manual
of Geology, p. 141) indicates how quick burying is necessary to create
animals, such as fish, reptiles etc., decompose when their soft parts are
removed. They must be buried quickly after death to avoid decaying and being
eaten by other animals.
provide very clear evidence of the fact that they were buried quickly.
In addition, there are also several pieces
of evidence that show these animals were still alive when buried. Consider the
Fish fossils. A large number of
fish fossils have been found with signs of having been buried alive and
Fish fossils have been found with an
unfinished meal of smaller fish still in their mouths when they were suddenly buried
under great masses of soil. It can hardly be claimed that this was a normal
death. Feeding was a part of the normal life of a fish and therefore it can be
concluded that death came quickly and the fish were instantly buried.
Secondly, these fish fossils were found
with all their scales still intact, mouths open and all fins spread out. This
indicates that they must have been alive and struggling until they died. Quick
burial under sludge – as would happen in the Flood -- would be the most probable
way for these fish to die. For example, about 9 out of every 10 armour fish
found in old red sandstone layers were found in this position. They had their
two horns raised as a sign of danger, suggesting that they were buried quickly.
Moreover, fish fossils cannot be formed in
any other way – except in the way mentioned before – because under normal
conditions fish decompose very quickly or are eaten by other animals. However,
in fish burial sites millions of such fish fossils can be found.
and oysters. Bivalve mussels and oysters have been found in closed position,
indicating that they were buried alive. Usually, when these animals die the
muscle that holds their shells closed relaxes allowing sand and clay to get in.
These fossils, however, are usually found closed tightly and there is no sand
or clay between the shells. Since these shells are tightly closed, it indicates
that these animals have been buried when they were still alive.
Mammoths. Among other
animals, large mammoths have also been found. It has been estimated that five
million of them were buried. Tons of their remains, mainly tusks, have been dug
from the ground and sold in ivory trade, which suggests the scope of these
What is remarkable about these mammoth
findings is that the mammoths were found preserved in very good condition. Some
were found in a standing position (!), some had undigested food still in their
mouths and stomachs, some of them were whole and undamaged.
These findings are made all around the
world, which indicates that they were not killed in a localized spring flood,
through slow death from starvation, or any ordinary death – as many people
would have us believe. There is no other way to explain the simultaneous and
violent death of hundreds of thousands of animals, all buried in sludge layers.
Only when we accept the Flood as fact can we find a credible cause for this
AND PARTS OF THEM FOUND ON MOUNTAINS AND DRY LAND
Perhaps the best
evidence of a global Flood is the fact that we can find remains of marine
creatures on mountains and dry land. (Similar examples can be found in
nature programs on television.) These remains certainly could not exist in
their current locations if the sea had not at some time covered these areas.
- 500 years before
the beginning of the modern calendar, Pythagoras found remains of marine
creatures on mountains.(p.11 Planeetta maa (“Planet Earth”)).
- A hundred years
later, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote that seashells were collected from
the desert in Egypt. He concluded that the sea must have reached as far as the
desert (p. 11 "Planeetta maa"). Remains of large marine
animals have also been found in the large deserts of Africa.
- Xenofanes found
marine fossils in inland areas far away from the sea in about 500 B.C. He also
found fish fossils in a quarry in Syracuse in Sicily, and in Malta and the
Italian mainland. He concluded that these areas had earlier been covered by sea
(p. 17 Nils Edelman - Viisaita ja veijareita geologian maailmassa).
- Charles Darwin
also ran into marine remains when he found a whale skeleton in the mountainous
regions of Peru.
- Albaro Alonzo
Barba, who was a mining director in Petos, mentions in his book written in
1640, that he had found strange shells in rocks between Potos and Oroneste in
Bolivia, 3,000 metres above sea level (p. 54 Nils Edelman: Viisaita ja
veijareita geologian maailmassa )
- German P. S.
Pallas in the 1700s found stratified limestone and clay slates in the mountains
of the Ural and Altai – both in Russia – which held remains of marine animals
and plants (p. 125 Nils Edelman: Viisaita ja veijareita geologian
- Many marine
organisms such as mussels, ammonites, belemnites, (ammonites and belemnites
lived at the same time as dinosaurs), bone fish, sea lilies, coral and
plankton fossils and relatives of the current sea urchins and starfishes were
found many kilometres above sea level in the Himalayas. The book Maapallo
Ihmeiden Planeetta ( p. 55) describes these remains in the following way:
Sakai from the Japanese University in Kyushu has for many years researched
these marine fossils in the Himalayan Mountains. He and his group have listed a
whole aquarium from the Mesozoic period. Tender sea lilies, relatives to the
current sea urchins and starfishes, were found on cliffs over three kilometres
above sea level. Ammonites, belemnites, corals, and plankton fossils are found
in the rocks of the mountains. (…)
At an altitude of two kilometres above sea
level, the geologists found markings the sea had made. There was a wavelike
rock surface, similar to that which is formed by waves on sand in low water.
Yellow stripes of limestone have been found even on the peak of Mount Everest,
formed from innumerable remains of marine creatures under water.
findings have been made of mussels, crustaceans, ammonites, stripes, and clay
slate layers including sea fossils in the Himalayas, Alps, Andes, and the Rocky
Mountains. Some of these findings have been at an altitude of several
kilometers. The following description of the Alps indicates the existence of
these marine fossils:
is reason to look closely at the original nature of the rocks in the mountain ranges.
It is best seen in the Alps, in the lime Alps of the northern, so-called
Helvetian zone. Limestone is the main rock material. If we were to scale the
steep slopes of some mountain or peak – if we had the energy to climb up there
– we would find fossilized remains of marine creatures. They are often badly
damaged, but it is possible to find recognizable pieces. All those fossils are
lime shells or skeletons of sea creatures. Among them are spiral twisted
ammonites and many bivalves. (…) The reader might wonder at this point what it
means that mountain ranges hold so many sediments, which can also be found
stratified in the bottom of the sea. (p.
236,237, Pentti Eskola, Muuttuva maa)
Limestone covering almost a quarter of China includes the remains of corals
originating from the sea (p. 97,100-106 “Maapallo ihmeiden planeetta”).
There are similar areas also in Yugoslavia and the Alps.
- In a
slate quarry in the Snowdon Mountains in England, there are enormous gravel and
sand layers full of shells of shore mussels about 1,400 feet above sea level.
Remains of fish lizards or Ichthyosaurs that could grow up to several meters,
have been found in England and Germany buried into clay layers with their bones
and skins. One of the skeletons, preserved in the collection of Helsinki
University Geological Institute, was found in a clay stone in Holzmaden of
Wurttenberg. It is 2.5 meters long and has been extremely well preserved. (p. 371 "Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
central France (Saint-Laon, Vienne), shells of ammonites have been found in the
limestone. (p. 365
"Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
limestone area in Solnhofen of Bavaria has two fossils of the bird lizard
(Archaeopteryx). From the same limestone area, other well preserved fossils,
such as insects, medusas, crayfishes, belemnites, and fishes have also been
found. (p. 372, "Muuttuva maa”,
There are some areas in London, Paris, and Vienna which are former sea bed. For
example, some limestone areas in Paris are composed mainly of mollusk shells
from the tropical seas. (s. 377
"Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
the vicinity of Berlin, silt layers several meters thick include shells of an
extinct gastropod (Paludina diluviana), and remains of pikes. (p. 410 "muuttuva maa, Pentti Eskola)
areas as Syria, Arabia, the current Israel, and Egypt have been sea beds. (p.401, 402 "Muuttuva maa”, Pentti Eskola)
- Old oyster
fossils have been found in Tunisia, near the town of Tozeur. (p. 90 Björn Kurten, Kuinka Mammutti pakastetaan)
- In the desert of
Faijum 60 kilometers south-west of Cairo, remains of whales and sea lions have
been found on the slopes of a high ridge of Djebel Qatran. (p. 23 Björn
Kurten, Jääkausi, [The Ice Age])
- From many different
parts of the globe, layers of fish fossils have been found containing hundreds
of thousands or millions of fish. For example, in the Herring fossil layers in
California, it is estimated that there are a billion fish in an area of ten
square kilometers. The areas from Germany to the Caspian Sea, Italy, Scotland,
Denmark (in the chalk cliff of Steven's Klint) and South of Spain (the
hills of Caravaca) include layers of millions of fish fossils. All these
dry land areas must have been covered by the sea or these fish findings would
not be possible.
- The well-known
clay slate layers in Burgess, found in the Rocky Mountains in the year 1909,
include tens of thousands of fossils from the ancient sea bed, nowadays at a
height of over 2,000 meters above sea level.
- From the
north-west parts of Australia (p. 96 Maapallo ihmeiden planeetta) and
New Guinea, corals and fossils of fish can be found.
- From the
mainland of North America, remains of whales were found at a great distance from
the sea. These findings have been made for instance on Ontario Lake, in
Vermont, Quebec, and St. Lawrence. Therefore, these areas must have been
covered by sea at some time in the distant past.
- Many of the high
places around the world – the Himalayas and other high mountains – show signs
of ancient coastlines and wave action. These findings have also been made in
New Guinea, Italy, Sicily, England, Ireland, Iceland, Spitzbergen,
Novaja-Semlja, the Land of Franz Joseph, Greenland, in extensive areas in North
and South America, Algeria, Spain … the list goes on and on. (The
Information comes mainly from Maanpinnan muodot ja niiden synty, p.
99,100 / by Iivari Leiviskä ).
shorelines have also been found in Finland and neighboring countries. One example
is Pyhätunturi, where there are stones with signs of waves. Signs of the
ancient shores can also be found on the slopes of many hills. In the southern
part of Finland, such places are Korppoo, Jurmo, Kaunissaari in Pyhtää and
Virttaankangas in Säkylä, as well as further up north, for example Lauhanvuori,
Rokua and Aavasaksa. (From the book Jokamiehen geologia, p. 96 / by Kalle Taipale,
- Lava has been
found on the mountains of Ararat at a height of 4,500 meters above sea level,
and can only be a product of underwater volcanic eruptions (Molen, M., Vårt
ursprung?, 1991, p. 246)
KNOWLEDGE AND THE FLOOD
We do not need to
search for information about the Flood only in nature; we find evidence of it
in the traditions of various nations. It has been estimated that there are at
least 140–150 of these stories told by cultures around the world. Many of these
stories have (naturally) changed with time, but they all have in common the
mention of water as the cause of devastation. Many of these stories also
mention previous good times, The Fall of man and the confusion of the languages
which took place in Babel (Babylon) – all events the Bible also mentions.
These stories can be found among different
tribes, such as Babylonians, natives Australians, Miao tribe in China, African
Efe dwarfs, Hopi Indians in America and the Padago tribe in North America. The
story of the Flood is so widely told around the world that it seems likely that
the Flood really happened. A book called The Earth makes mention of
If the world-wide Flood was not real, some nations
would have explained that frightening volcanic eruptions, large snow storms,
droughts (...) have destroyed their evil ancestors. The universality of the story
of the Flood is therefore one of the best pieces of evidence of its
truthfulness. We could dismiss any of these individual legends and think it was
only imagination, but together, from a global perspective, they are almost
According to the
Bible, when Noah went into the Ark there were only seven other people with him;
altogether there were eight people in the Ark. (Gen 7:7 and 1 Peter 3:20).
However, it is interesting that the same
number eight and a clear reference to the Flood appear even in the letter
symbols, especially in the Chinese writing system. In the Chinese writing
system, a symbol of a ship is a boat with eight people in it, the same number
as in the Ark of Noah! The symbol for the word “flood” also has the number
eight! It cannot be mere coincidence that the same number, eight, is associated
with the symbols of the ship and the Flood. This association is certainly there
because the Chinese have preserved within their traditions the same knowledge about
a global Flood that is held by other cultures. They have also believed since
ancient times that there is only one God in Heaven.
The second example. The Chinese symbol of the
ship is a boat with eight people in it. Eight people? The Ark of Noah had
exactly eight people in it.
(…) All researchers are not of the same
opinion on the exact meaning of every symbol. In any case, the Chinese
themselves (such as many Japanese, who – practically speaking – have the same
writing system) are interested in the interpretations the missionaries have
presented to them. Even though the theories were not right, mere speaking of
them might be enough to indicate the spiritual truth for unbelievers.
I myself have noticed how many Chinese and
Japanese preachers think that these different symbols are a good way to
understand the thinking of their people. (Don Richardson, Eternity in their
word righteous. In the Chinese writing system, there is also another peculiar
symbol: the word “righteous”. The symbol of righteous is composed of two
different parts: the upper part means a lamb and below it is the
personal pronoun I. Therefore, there has been a view that people cannot be
righteous by themselves. They are righteous only when they are under the lamb.
The Chinese writing system teaches the same messages as the New Testament. We must live under the Lamb given to us by
God (Jesus Christ), so that we may be made righteous. This is referred to in
the next Bible verses:
(John 1:29) The next day John sees
Jesus coming to him, and said, Behold the Lamb of God, which
takes away the sin of the world.
Cor 1:30) But of him are you in Christ Jesus, who
of God is made to us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification,
CARBON AND OIL
Carbon and oil, we
are usually taught, were formed through a slow process that required millions
of years. People talk about a carbon era, when carbon was especially formed.
Were these really formed hundreds of
millions years ago? Have they existed for millions of years, or have they not?
The following information suggests that they were formed more recently --
in the immediate past -- only a few thousands years ago, and that they resulted
from the Flood mentioned in the Bible.
The age of carbon
deposits and oil wells. The first point is that evidence of the age of carbon
and oil deposits do not refer to great periods of time. We talked about this
already earlier and the next two points prove this:
- The pressure of
oil wells is so high (it is common that oil can gush into the air from a
drilled hole in the ground), that they cannot be more than 10,000 years old. (Chapters
12-13 of Prehistory and earth models by Melvin A. Cook, Max Parrish and company,
1966). If these wells were millions of years old, the pressure would have
dissipated a long time ago.
footprints have been found in carbon layers described as "250–300 million
years old" in many areas (Mexico, Arizona, Illinois, New Mexico, and
Kentucky, among others). Objects belonging to a man and human fossils (!) have
been found in these same layers. This means that either humans were inhabiting
the earth 300 million years ago, or that those carbon layers are really only a
few thousand years old. (Glashouver, W.J.J., So entstand die Welt,
Hänssler, 1980, ss. 115-6; Bowden, M., Ape-men – Fact or Fallacy?
Sovereign Publications, 1981; Barnes, F.A., The Case of the Bones in Stone,
Desert/February, 1975, p. 36-39). It is more probable that the latter
alternative is true, because even scientists do not believe that people
inhabited the Earth 300 million years ago:
man (...) in any form existed as early as in the Iron Carbon period, the whole
geological science is so completely wrong that all geologists should resign
from their jobs and become truck drivers. So, at least for the present, science
rejects the tempting alternative of man having left those footprints." (The
Carboniferous Mystery, Scientific Monthly, vol. 162, Jan.1940, p.14)
The speed of formation. Concerning the formation of oil and carbon it
does not need to take a long time. One support for this theory is found in the
fact that during World War II oil was made from coal and lignite in Germany,
and with success. It did not take eons, but happened in a short time. Using a
different technology more recently, a barrel of oil was produced in 20 minutes
from one ton of organic waste (Machine design, 14 May 1970).
has also been possible to transform wood and cellulose into carbon or
carbon-like materials in just a few hours. This shows that when the conditions
are right, oil and carbon can be formed quite quickly. It does not require
millions of years for them to be formed. Only theories about evolution need
millions of years. The
following example proves that mineral coal can be formed in a short period of
time, in only a couple of weeks. The author proves that such events could have
occurred quickly, in connection with the Flood.
in the Argonne National Laboratory (in the US) have proven that top-class black
carbon can be obtained utilising the following method: take some lignin (an
essential ingredient in wood) and mix it with some acidic clay and water. Heat
the mixture in an oxygen-free closed quartz container at 150 ºC without
increasing the pressure. This is not a high temperature from the geological
viewpoint – actually, there is nothing exceptional or “unnatural” about the
ingredients, either. Neither does the process take millions of years – it only
takes 4–36 weeks!
(...) Famous Australian geologist Sir
Edgeworth David described in his report of 1907 still standing charred tree
trunks that were found in between layers of black carbon in Newcastle
(Australia). The bottom parts of the trunks had been buried deep into the
carbon stratum, and then the trunks went right through the strata above,
finally ending up in the carbon stratum on top!
To think that people try to explain this with
slow processes taking place in two separate swamps, interspersed by long
periods of time. It is clear that the prejudice of “slow, gradual development”
has prevented the more obvious explanation of the origin of the carbon, i.e. a
huge mass of water caused by an act of God quickly buried the uprooted plants.
Moving water can quickly cause major
geological changes – particularly if there is lots of water. Most people think
that such changes must occur over a period of millions of years. (…)
Some geologists (including many of those
who believe in the processes of “millions of years”) now say that the Grand
Canyon was formed in the same manner – in a catastrophe – instead of being
formed over a period of millions of years because of erosion caused by the
The Flood lasted for one year, covered
mountains, caused global upheaval and rent the earth when water (and inevitably
also magma) gushed up for months (”the fountains of the great deep broke up”,
Gen 7:11). Such a frightening catastrophe would cause an incredible amount of
geological changes. (1)
supporting short-term formation. The following points
strongly support the notion that carbon and oil were created quickly during the
Flood, not slowly over millions of years:
- Fossils of tree
trunks penetrating through various layers can be found in the middle of carbon
layers. An old picture of a coal mine in France shows how five tree trunks
penetrate about ten layers. These fossils could not have been formed or
appeared if the carbon layers were formed over a course of millions of years.
- Many carbon
layers have noticeable layers of fossilized shells of marine animals ("A
note on the occurrence of marine animal remains in a Lancashire coal
ball", Geological magazine, 118:307, 1981 and Weir, J. "Recent studies
of shell of the coal measures ", Science progress,
38:445, 1950). Also, plants that do not even grow in swamp areas have
been found in these carbon layers. These findings clearly point to the Flood,
which would have transported marine animals and other life forms amongst the
plants found on dry land.
Price presents cases where 50–100 coal layers are one top of each other and
between them there are layers including fossils from deep sea. He deems this
piece of evidence so strong and convincing that he has never tried to explain
these facts on grounds of Lyell’s uniformity theory. (Wiljam Aittala: Kaikkeuden sanoma, p. 198)
- Carbon and oil
are not being naturally formed nowadays. That is why they are called
non-renewable natural resources. They are not being naturally formed even in
tropical countries, even though conditions in those countries should be
suitable. On the contrary, the plants there only rot quickly and no oil or
carbon is created.
Therefore, carbon and oil could only have been
formed during a natural catastrophe that suddenly covered the plants beneath
ground, compressing them under high pressure with no oxygen to ruin them (high
pressure and lack of oxygen are considered necessary for the formation of
carbon; in addition, bacteria needs oxygen in order to decompose plant waste).
The Flood that accumulated mud and soil is the best way to explain this kind of
an event. The next quote from a book of a Finnish geologist (Pentti Eskola:
"Muuttuva maa", p. 114) refers to the same issue. It indicates
that, in connection with the coal seams, there are clay stones that have been
stratified from water. The quote refers clearly to the Flood as having occurred
only a couple of thousand years ago:
and above the coal seams there are, as has been said, regular layers of clay
stone, and from their structure we can see that they have been stratified from
THE DEVASTATION OF
believe that the destruction of dinosaurs took place millions of years ago
during the final phase of the Cretaceous period, also destroying ammonites,
belemnites, and several other species of plants and animals. The devastation is
believed to have swept away a great many of the animals of the Cretaceous
Is that belief true? Were the dinosaurs
really destroyed during the so-called Cretaceous period millions of years ago,
or were they destroyed in the Flood? Let’s study this, along with other common
destroyed by an epidemic, a virus, or egg robbers? Some people theorize that dinosaurs were
destroyed by an epidemic or a virus. Others theorize that other animals
suddenly started eating dinosaur eggs.
However, there is a big problem with both theories:
neither explains how other plants and animals -- plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs,
pterosaurs, plants, herbivores ammonites, and belemnites -- could have died at
the same time. (Ammonites and belemnites are marine animals whose fossils
have been found on the slopes of the Alps and Himalayas, among other places.)
Why did these other species die at the same time? Viruses certainly cannot be
the killer; how can viruses destroy quite different species, marine and land
animals, even plants? Such viruses are not known.
The egg-eater theory does not explain the
simultaneous destruction of both animal and plant species. Such large-scale
destruction, and extinction of so many species at the same time, can not be
laid at the feet of vaguely identified egg-eaters. There must be a better
Was a meteorite
the cause of the devastation? Some people theorize that a meteorite raised an
enormous dust cloud, and that this dust cloud blocked the Sun for such a long
time that all the plants died and the herbivores starved to death.
is, however, one problem with this theory of a slow change in the climate. This
theory, or the theories mentioned above, cannot explain how fossils of
dinosaurs can be found inside the rocks and mountains in large areas of the
globe. They can be found around the world inside hard rock, which is really
strange. It is strange because any large animal – perhaps 20 meters long – can
not go inside a hard rock. Time does not help, either. Even if we waited
millions of years for these animals to be buried in the ground and change into
fossils, they would rot away before that or other animals would eat them.
Actually, whenever we see a dinosaur fossil or other fossils, they must have
been buried quickly under sludge and mud. They cannot have been born in any
apparent that if the formation of strata was to take place in such a slow
tempo, no fossils could be preserved as they would not be buried into sediment
before decomposing caused by water acids, or before they were destroyed and
broken into pieces because of rubbing and hitting against the bottoms of
shallow seas. They can be covered in sediment only in an accident in which they
are buried quickly." (Geochronology or the Age of the Earth on
grounds of Sediments and Life, Bulletin of the National Research Council
No. 80, Washington D. C., 1931, p. 14)
Our conclusion must be that these dinosaurs
that have been found around the world must have been buried very quickly under
mud and slime deposits. The soft slime first covered them and then become hard
like cement. This is the only way we can explain the fossils of dinosaurs,
mammoths, and other animals. This could have happened in the Flood.
Perhaps the next description gives a
correct view of this. It shows how dinosaurs can be found inside hard rock,
which indicates that they must have first been covered by soft slime that then
hardened around them. We could expect something like this only in the Flood –
not in normal cycles of nature. (The example also refers to how the whirls
of water may have accumulated the bones of dinosaurs.) Some points have
been marked in bold to make things clearer:
went to the deserts of South Dakota, where there are bright-colored red, yellow,
and orange cliffs and rocks. Already in a few days, he found from the cliff
some bones he assumed to be what he had gone to search for. When he dug
the rock around the bones, he noted that the bones were the skeleton of an
animal. They were not together, as the bones of dinosaurs often are. Many of
these piles seemed as if created by a powerful whirl of water.
These bones were now in blue sandstone that is very hard.
The sandstone had to be removed by a road scraper and loosened by explosives.
Brown and his assistants made a hole of almost seven and a half meters deep to
get the bones out. Getting one large skeleton out took them two summers. By no
means did they remove the bones from stone. They transported these blocks of
stone by train into the museum where the scientists were able to chip the stone
material away and set up the skeleton. This tyrant lizard now stands in the
exhibition hall of the museum. (p. 72, Dinosaurs / Ruth Wheeler and
Harold G. Coffin)
1. Carl Wieland: Kiviä ja luita (Stones and Bones), s. 12-14